LOKAKARYA PENUAAN PENDUDUK DAN PEMBANGUNAN: DOKUMENTASI, TANTANGAN, DAN LANGKAH LANJUT
Population ageing has become a global issue in the 21st century, particularly in developed countries. It has also become an important social, economic and political issue, including in Asia. Japan and South Korea are another example of nations with a high elderly percentage. These nations have actively designed and implemented “pro- ageing” policies whereby development programs and policies have included ageing dimensions. Population aging can be said as success of development as people can live longer as they consume better nutrition, sanitation, education, health, etc. By 2025, Indonesia is predicted to have the same size of aging population as in Singapore, however with much lower per capita income than Singapore. How will Indonesia be able to afford its ageing population? Ageing population in Indonesia is increasing rapidly, by 2015 it will reach 32 million and by 2030 it will reach 40 million lives which exceed number of population below 15 years old. This large elderly population will have specific needs and requirements. Is Indonesia ready for this?
It was a speech and opening remark from Bondan S Sikoki SE MA, the director of Direktur SurveyMETER representing the organizing committee during opening ceremony of “Population’s Ageing and Development : Documentation, Challenge and Further Action” workshop, at The Phoenix Hotel, 19-20 November 2012. The workshop is organized by SurveyMETER, in cooperation with Emong Lansia Foundation, Centre of Ageing Study, The Asia Foundation and Australian Aid. The workshop is attended by 29 speakers and 150 participants, mainly are stakeholders in ageing issues, from government, community, NGOs, academics or international institutions.
WORKSHOP DAY 1
On the first day of workshop, Vice Minister of Health, Prof dr Ali Gufron MuktiMSc,PhD delivers his keynotespeech, Head of Yogyakarta Health Office,dr Sarminto MKes representing the Governor of Yogyakarta officially opens the workshop. The other dignitaries present on the first day namely : Director of Elderly Social Service, Ministry of Social Affair Drs. Mulyo Johni, Msi, Benjamin Davis from Knowledge Sector Ausaid, Dr. Toni Hartono from National Commission on Elderly, Dr. Maliki from BAPPENAS, Prof. Dr. Haryono Suyono from Damandiri Foundation, also steering committee of the workshop; Prof. Tri Budi W.Raharjo, Dra. Eva A J.Sabdono, MBA and Bondan Sikoki SE.,MA.
Support from AUSAID for Indonesia
In his speech, Benjamin Davis from Knowledge Sector Ausaid, says that the objective of AUSAID by supporting the event is to improve quality of public policy in all areas. One of the method is by delivering research output that influent policy making process, another mean is by encouraging government institution to utilize the research output. Finally Ausaid can intermediate between policy maker and researchers.
Benjamin who is specialized in public policy emphasizes that his presence at the workshop is to learn about ageing from the ageing stakeholders who are present at the workshop. According to him, Ausaid has worked with The Asia Foundation to support knowledge institution like SurveyMETER for the last 2 years. Ausaid has given fund to knowledge institutions to develop themselves as well as conducting independent researches, not merely by-request researches. Further, Ausaid continue its support to knowledge institution to take action based on their findings.
According to Benjamin, with this workshop SurveyMETER and other organizing institutions have taken a strategic step by bringing the ageing issues into account. Benjamin expect more similar forums to come therefore policy makers and researchers will have room to discuss and debate issues on ageing.
The decision to hold the event in Yogyakarta is correct as Yogyakarta has the largest ageing population in Indonesia. As the objective of this workshop is to review aging issues in Indonesia from various perspective : social,economic and cultural, Benjamin says that his native country, Australia is also facing population ageing problem. “I see participants of this workshop come from various background, however I expect there will a common ground between policy makers and researchers on ageing issue right after this workshop” Benjamin concludes.
Bondan Sikoki, Director of SurveyMETER urges event such as this workshop to become media for meeting and discussion between ageing stakeholders so that they can document what efforts have been done, what challenges they are facing and what follow ups will be taken. She also expects this forum become media to meet, discuss, share information and look for common ground to cooperate and plan follow up actions. In line with what Bondan says, Benjamin strongly encourages the forum to start discussion about real issues about ageing population : effective ways to support and finance elderly, appropriate health system and social security for the elderly, what is the role of private sector, what is the influence of social-cultural or family in this issue.
Need to delete paradigm
Meanwhile, the Governor of Yogyakarta, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X in his speech, read by Head of Health Office Yogyakarta, dr. Sarminto Mkes, says that ageing is an irreversible natural process, decline in body’s functionality will follow the ageing process as well as decline in productivity. Elderly is often characterized as being sick and dependent to other people. Number of ageing population is increasing due to raise in life expectancy and decrease in birth rate.
Sultan acknowledges that finance will become a prominent issue in Indonesia facing the retirement boom in 2025. Therefore, government as well as private sector and the community must pay special attention to this issue as the solution might require multi dimensional approaches. Elderly population shouldn’t be a burden, they must be empowered to become independent because if they are not, it will compromise population’s health and productivity, adds Sultan. Sultan urges we must overwrite stigma to elderly as people who have been powerless and useless. There are still many elderly who are still productive. Sultan expects the workshop can help to map out the problems and challenges as well as provide feedback and input to elderly programs, and to nurture cooperation between government, private sector and community in order to improve elderly’s life and their family.
The Vice Minister of Health, Prof. Ali Gufron Mukti, Msc, Phd in his keynote speech “Government’s experience : strategy and policy of elderly health service in Indonesia” reveals that his ministry is determined to change the slogan “the poor must not sick” into “sick poor must not pay” through various programs. Law No.36 2009 article 138 provides legal guidance for elderly health service. The article says that health service for the elderly is aimed to preserve their healthy living and productive socially and economically in accordance with their humanity.
The law has become reference for the government to fulfill the objective of health development which is to improve people awareness, willingness and capability to live healthy and reach the highest level of health in order people can live in prosperous and productivity socially and economically. As consequence, government must guarantee provision of health care and facilitate the elderly so that they can live independently and productively in terms of social and economy. “We expect the people to benefit from the minimum service standard. Government has issued a government regulation regarding the elderly which concerns religiousity, health and public service, for example how elderly can obtain age-friendly service such as priority in public transport, and other public services” adds Mr. Gufron.
Eldely Health Policy
The general objective of government policy is to improve level of health and living quality of the elderly so that they can enjoy a happy and meaningful elderly life in family and community. While the special objective is to increase elderly awareness to look after their own health, improve family and community capability in elderly health and improve health services, coverage and their quality to the elderly. According to the vice minister, government has developed some programs:
- Improve and establish health service to elderly in basic health facilities, particularly in puskesmas through Puskesmas for the elderly concept
- Improve health reference facility for the elderly through development of Geriatric policlinic, currently available in 8 hospitals (type A and B)
- Improve information dissemination on health and nutrition for the elderly
- Empower community through development and establishment of integrated health post for the elderly in the community
- Improve quality of health service for the elderly in family (homecare), integrate with community health service program in puskesmas or hospital.
- Improve community’s role in health service for the elderly through Health Fund and Jamkesmas.
Speech from the vice minister wraps up the opening ceremony. Then the workshop continues with presentation session. The following are presentations by sessions :
Presentation Session 1: Government’s experiences
GKR Hemas (Vice Chairperson of Indonesia Senate), delivered by Dr Nahiyah J Faraz MPd—“Lansia dan Pembangunan: AntaraHarapan dan Tantangan”
Dr Yulia Suhartini (Director of Eldely Social Service, Ministry of Social Affairs) delivered by Drs Mulyo Johni MSi (chief of directorate Elderly advocation and social service)—“Program Pelayanan SosialLanjut Usia”
Dr. Maliki Achmad PhD (BAPPENAS)—“Penuaan Penduduk dan Pembangunan: National Transfer Account sebagai Salah Satu Dokumentasi Pendukung Analisis Sistem Penunjang Penduduk Lanjut Usia”
Dr Toni Hartono (chairperson II National Commission of Elderly)—“Pengalaman dari Pemerintah”
Moderator: Prof Tri Budi W Rahardjo (Centre for Ageing Studies University of Indonesia)
Presentation Session 2: Community experience
Sabrin O Ladongi SAg,MM (Al Kautsar Foundation Palu)—“Peran Generasi Muda dalam Pembinaan Lansia”
Fajarina Lathu Asmarani SKep, Ns, MSN (elderly service in community, FIKES Universitas Respati Yogyakarta)—“Community Services”
Ruliyandar SE, MKes (Golden Geriatric Club)—“Golden Geriatric Club (Sekolah untuk Lansia dan Pra Lansia)—Mulia Dua Foundation”
Prof Dr Haryono Suyono MA PhD (Damandiri Foundation)—“Pemberdayaan Menyongsong Peran Lansia dalam Pembangunan”
Moderator: Dra Eva AJ Sabdono MBA (Emong Lansia Foundation UI)
Presentation Session 3: Non Government Organization’s experience
Prof Dr dr Luh Ketut Suryani (Suryani Institute)—“Program Membina Lanjut Usia di Bali: Tua Berguna, Bahagia, dan Sejahtera”
Dr Rohadi HaryantoMSc (Indonesia National Council on Social Welfare)—“Peran serta Organisasi Sosial dalam Menghadapi Penuaan Penduduk”
Dra Hj Budi Wahyuni MM MA (PKBI Yogyakarta)—“Kesehatan Seksual di Usia Tua, Sebuah Kebutuhan yang Tertunda”
Dr Siti Hariani MSc (Pelita Usila Foundation)—“Pengalaman dalam Pengembangan Program Lanjut Usia di Indonesia”
Dra Eva AJ Sabdono MBA (Emong Lansia Foundation UI)—“Promoting Mutual Support Through Older People’s Associations in Indonesia/Mempromosikan Saling Dukung Melalui Lembaga-lembaga Lansia di Indonesia”
Moderator: Bondan S Sikoki SE,MA (SurveyMETER)
Presentation/Forum Session 3a : Future Policy for the elderly
Dr Nugroho Abikusno (InResAge Trisakti University Jakarta)—“Ageing in Indonesia in The Future”
Prof Dr Sri Moertiningsih Adioetomo SE, MA
Prof Bambang Purwoko MA,PhD (National Social Security Council)—“Implementasi Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional Berbasis Kesempatan Kerja untuk Perluasan Kepesertaan Semesta Tahun 2014”
Dr Fiona Howell (TNP2K) delivered by oleh Dr Jan Piebe—“Pathways to Social Pensions in Indonesia: Poverty and Old-Age Income Security/Langkah Menuju Dana Pensiun Sosial di Indonesia: Kemiskinan dan Pengamanan Penghasilan Lansia”
Moderator: Dr Kharisma Priyo Nugroho (The Asia Foundation)
Presentation Sessioni 4: Academics’ experience
Dr Fatmah SKM, MSc(Community Health Department, University of Indonesia)–“Gizi Usia Lanjut: Pengalaman dari Akademisi”
Indrasari Tjandraningsih MA (AKATIGA—Center of Social Analysist)—“Pasar Kerja Fleksibel dan Beban Lansia”
Dr Hilman Latief (Muhammadiyah University Yogyakarta)–“Faith, Elderly and Philanthrophy; Peran Organisasi Filantropi berbasis Keagamaan dalam Menangani Lansia”
Moderator: Dr Evi Nurvidya Arifin (Institute of South East Asian Study, Singapore)
Reflective session: Indonesia Elderly in the future
Facilitator: Dr NW Suriastini MPhil (SurveyMETER)
Minutes keeper: Dr Lies Marcoes Natsir
Presentation Session 5: International institution’s experience
Dr Evi Nurvidya Arifin (Institute of South East Asian Study, Singapore)–“Aspek Ekonomi Demografi Penuaan Penduduk”
dr Hernani DjarirMPH (WHO Indonesia)–“Age Friendly City”
Dr NW Suriastini MPhil(SurveyMETER)—“Indicators of Age Friendly City for Planning and Policy Formulation: an Exploratory Analysis/Indikator-indikator untuk Merencanakan Age-Friendly City dan Merancang Kebijakan: Sebuah Eksplorasi Analisis”
Moderator: Dr Aris Ananta (Institute of SouthEast Asian Studies, Singapore)
Session 5a: Voice of Elderly
Ibu Sumaryati (member of Dian Kemala)
Ibu Suminah (member of Dian Kemala)
Ibu Profesor Saparinah Sadli
Facilitator: Dr Lies Marcoes Natsir
Move with Care: J Puspo Adijuwono
Dr Aris Ananta (Institute of SouthEast Asian Studies, Singapore)
Prof Tri Budi W Rahardjo (Centre for Ageing Studies University of Indonesia)